Noninvasive imaging of transplanted cellsModo, MichelCurrent Opinion in Organ Transplantation: December 2008 - Volume 13 - Issue 6 - p 654–658 doi: 10.1097/MOT.0b013e328317a43c Cellular transplantation: Edited by Anil Dhawan Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review Transplantation of cells is an urgent clinical need that is increasingly providing an alternative to solid-organ transplants. This review discusses the state-of-the-art in-vivo imaging of cell transplantation with a special focus on recent developments. Recent findings Noninvasive imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear (positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography), acoustical, and optical imaging can investigate the biodistribution, fate, and functional integration of grafted cells. Especially, multimodal imaging is emerging as an important development to provide complimentary and confirmatory information. Summary The development of noninvasive imaging of transplanted cells has progressed rapidly over the last few years. Translating these techniques into clinical protocols remains the focus of ongoing investigations. Centre for the Cellular Basis of Behaviour & MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, London, UK Correspondence to Michel Modo, Institute of Psychiatry, Centre for the Cellular Basis of Behaviour, The James Black Centre, 125 Coldharbour Lane, London SE5 9NU, UK Tel: +44 207 848 5315; e-mail: email@example.com © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.