Purpose of review
Experienced breathlessness and recalled breathlessness are two different entities, which may be associated with different factors and might have different impacts on function for the individual. The aim was to review the knowledge from the last 2 years concerning experienced breathlessness and recalled breathlessness and related factors.
Experienced breathlessness was most often induced or measured during exercise testing in a lab environment using a modified Borg scale. It was associated with both psychological factors, such as social rejection, presence of others, psychosocial stress and prenatal exposure to stress, as well as physical factors, such as hypoxia and frequent exacerbations.
Recalled breathlessness was most often measured in epidemiological studies, most commonly using the modified Medical Research Council scale. It was associated with lung volumes, overweight, exercise training, frailty, smoking, personality traits, behavior and marital and occupational status.
No studies during the review period had directly compared experienced breathlessness and recalled breathlessness. Several factors were related to either experienced breathlessness or recalled breathlessness but no clear differences between factors were found in this review. There is a need for comparative studies using the same measurement methods and in the same settings in order to examine their relation.