Purpose of review
Cisplatin remains the treatment cornerstone for bladder cancer, either in neoadjuvant or in metastatic (cisplatin-gemcitabine or dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin). Timely and adequate management of cisplatin's adverse events is important in order to avoid dose reductions, treatment delays, or cessation. Over the last years, several randomized studies and updated guidelines have been published on this subject.
The incidence, physiopathology, risk factors, preventive treatment, and optimal management of such complications will be presented, with special focus on cisplatin-associated nausea and vomiting, acute kidney injury (AKI), hypomagnesemia, neurotoxicity, and ototoxicity.
Optimal prevention of cisplatin-associated nausea and vomiting requires an aggressive approach with the use of a four-drug prophylactic regimen (NK1 receptor antagonist, 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, olanzapine). The use of intensive hydration before and after cisplatin infusion has been the mainstay of AKI prevention. The management of hypomagnesemia and neurotoxicity remains largely symptomatic. In an adult population, no therapy has yet demonstrated benefits in the prevention or treatment of platinum-related ototoxicity.