Purpose of review
The treatment of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) has been proven ineffective and relies heavily on opioids, the target of highly visible criticism for their negative side effects. Alternative therapeutic agents are needed and the last few years have brought promising results, detailed in this review.
Cysteine/glutamate antiporter system, xc−, cannabinoids, kappa opioids, and a ceramide axis have all been shown to have potential as novel therapeutic targets without the negative effects of opioids.
Review of the most recent and promising studies involving CIBP, specifically within murine models. Cancer pain has been reported by 30–50% of all cancer patients and even more in late stages, however the standard of care is not effective to treat CIBP. The complicated and chronic nature of this type of pain response renders over the counter analgesics and opioids largely ineffective as well as difficult to use due to unwanted side effects. Preclinical studies have been standardized and replicated while novel treatments have been explored utilizing various alternative receptor pathways: cysteine/glutamate antiporter system, xc−, cannabinoid type 1 receptor, kappa opioids, and a ceramide axis sphingosine-1-phosphate/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1.