GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Nicole Blijlevens and Andrea M. StringerInnate lymphoid cells in treatment-induced gastrointestinal pathogenesisOmar, Saïd Z.a,b; Blom, Biancaa,b; Hazenberg, Mette D.a,b,c,dAuthor Information aDepartment of Experimental Immunology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers location AMC, University of Amsterdam bCancer Center Amsterdam and Amsterdam Infection and Immunity, Amsterdam University Medical Center cDepartment of Hematology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers location AMC, University of Amsterdam dDepartment of Hematopoiesis, Sanquin Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Correspondence to Mette D. Hazenberg, Department of Hematology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers location AMC, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 20 566 5785; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care: June 2020 - Volume 14 - Issue 2 - p 135-141 doi: 10.1097/SPC.0000000000000499 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Tissue injury often occurs as collateral damage after chemotherapy and radiotherapy and is associated with significant comorbidity and mortality. The arsenal of options to prevent tissue injury other than dose reduction is limited, and treatment is mostly aimed at symptom relief and prevention of complications, such as bacterial translocation and malnourishment. Novel approaches directed at prevention and early repair of damaged tissues are highly anticipated. Recent findings Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are important in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Most knowledge of ILC is based on studies in mice, and the contribution of ILC to repair therapy-induced tissue damage in humans is relatively understudied. A picture is nevertheless emerging, suggesting that ILC have several means to maintain tissue homeostasis. Subsets of ILC produce, for example, interleukin (IL)-22 or amphiregulin (AREG) that induce epithelial tissue repair and the release of microbiome modulating proteins. In addition, ILC have immune-regulatory capacities given that adoptive transfer of ILC in a mouse model of graft versus host disease (GvHD) attenuated tissue inflammation. Summary ILC are important in tissue maintenance and damage repair and as such have the potential to be developed as (adoptive) therapy to prevent and repair therapy-induced tissue damage. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.