BLOOD, BONE MARROW AND LYMPHATICS: Edited by Christopher DalleyKetamine and lidocaine infusions decrease opioid consumption during vaso-occlusive crisis in adolescents with sickle cell diseasePuri, Latikaa; Morgan, Kyle J.b; Anghelescu, Doralina L.b Author Information aDepartment of Hematology bDepartment of Pediatric Medicine, Division of Anesthesiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA Correspondence to Doralina L. Anghelescu, MD, Department of Pediatric Medicine, Division of Anesthesiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Mail Stop 130, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. Tel: +1 901 595 4032; fax: +1 901 595 4061; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care: December 2019 - Volume 13 - Issue 4 - p 402-407 doi: 10.1097/SPC.0000000000000437 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Recurrent exposure to opioids can lead to development of opioid tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia through activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists ketamine and lidocaine can modulate development of opioid tolerance and OIH. This study evaluated the utility of ketamine and/or lidocaine in decreasing opioid consumption during acute pain episodes in adolescents with sickle cell disease. There has been an increased effort to promote opioid-sparing pain relieving methods given the ongoing opioid epidemic. Recent findings There have been six studies published over the past decade that highlight the ability of ketamine to reduce opioid consumption in the management of sickle cell disease-related pain, primarily in adult patients. There has been one study (2015) that demonstrated a similar benefit with lidocaine, however this was also in adult patients. Summary We retrospectively evaluated treatment with ketamine and/or lidocaine infusions in adolescents hospitalized for vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). Patients served as self-controls using a comparison with a previous control admission for VOC. The use of ketamine and/or lidocaine as adjuncts to opioids resulted in lower daily opioid consumption in three of four patients. Our study suggests that ketamine and/or lidocaine infusions may be useful adjuncts in reducing opioid exposure during VOC pain. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.