There is growing concern about the association between systemic sclerosis and certain environmental and occupational risk factors, including exposures to vinyl chloride, adulterated cooking oils, L-tryptophan, silica, silicone breast implants, organic solvents, and other agents such as epoxy resins, pesticides, and hand/arm vibration. This article highlights the current medical research that has examined these associations in scleroderma-like disorders and in systemic sclerosis.
*Center for Health Care Research, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA; †Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
Correspondence and reprint requests to Paul J. Nietert, PhD, Center for Health Care Research, Medical University of South Carolina, P.O. Box 250550, 135 Rutledge Ave, Suite 1201, Charleston, SC 29425, USA; e-mail: email@example.com