Purpose of review
This review provides updates regarding biomarker studies that address key clinical unmet needs, which relate to the evaluation of the disease activity in patients with dermatomyositis.
Increasing evidence supports that the serum levels of dermatomyositis-specific antibodies (DM-MSAs), which include anti-Mi-2, anti-NXP2, anti-MDA5, anti-TNF1-γ, and anti-SAE, are correlated with the disease activity. Moreover, serial measurements of DM-MSA levels may help to predict the disease status. Beyond the MSA, macrophage activation-related biomarker-soluble CD163, CD206, neopterin, and galectin-3/9 are the most currently talked biomarkers for disease activity in dermatomyositis; new circulating T-cell subsets CD4+CXCR5+CCR7loPD-1hi and TIGIT+CD226+ CD4 T cells can potentially harbor biomarkers of disease activity in dermatomyositis. In addition, LDGs and NETs were also shown to be correlated with the disease activities of dermatomyositis.
Promising candidate biomarkers are now available for evaluating disease activity in dermatomyositis. These biomarkers need external validation in other large cohort studies.