IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS AND TREATMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: Edited by George C. TsokosDiagnostic, predictive and prognostic biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus: current insightsLindblom, Juliusa; Mohan, Chandrab; Parodis, Ioannisa,c Author Information aDivision of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden bDepartment Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA cDepartment of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden Correspondence to Ioannis Parodis, MD, PhD, Rheumatology, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: +46 722321322; e-mail: [email protected] Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.co-rheumatology.com). Current Opinion in Rheumatology 34(2):p 139-149, March 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000862 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis still constitute an unmet need for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Focusing on recent findings, this review summarises the current landscape of biomarkers in lupus. Recent findings Urine activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) exhibited good diagnostic ability in SLE and lupus nephritis (LN) whereas cerebrospinal fluid neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) showed promise in neuropsychiatric SLE. Urine ALCAM, CD163 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) may be useful in surveillance of LN. Urine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 was found to predict treatment response in SLE, and urine CD163 and NGAL treatment response in LN. Serum complement component 3 (C3) and urinary VCAM-1 have been reported to portend long-term renal prognosis in LN. Summary NGAL holds promise as a versatile biomarker in SLE whereas urine ALCAM, CD163 and VCAM-1 displayed good performance as biomarkers in LN. The overall lack of concerted corroboration of leading candidates across multiple cohorts and diverse populations leaves the current biomarker landscape in SLE in an urgent need for further survey and systematic validation. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.