MYOSITIS AND MYOPATHIES: Edited by Andrea Doria, Anna Ghirardello and Mariele GattoCardiac involvement in inflammatory myopathies and inherited muscle diseasesLilleker, James B.a,b,c; Roberts, Marka; Diederichsen, Louised,eAuthor Information aManchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Salford bCentre for Musculoskeletal Research, Division of Musculoskeletal and Dermatological Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, UK cNIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK dCenter for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark eDepartment of Rheumatology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Correspondence to James B. Lilleker, Manchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Salford M6 8HD, UK. Tel: +44 0161 2060210; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Rheumatology: November 2020 - Volume 32 - Issue 6 - p 528-533 doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000753 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To examine recent developments relating to cardiac involvement in the adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and those inherited muscle diseases which may present in adulthood and mimic IIM. Recent findings Cardiac involvement is a common feature of IIM and inherited muscle diseases. Frequency according to disease subtype varies, with serotype having particular influence in IIM, and genotype in the inherited muscle diseases. Innovative techniques for examining cardiac function have been investigated further, including speckle-tracking echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance tomography. The present work has highlighted a likely underestimate of the burden of cardiac disease to date. The complex relationship between IIM, atherosclerosis, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors has been further elucidated. Consensus recommendations for managing patients with inherited muscle diseases and prominent cardiac involvement have been recently published. In addition to supportive care, disease modifying treatments are increasingly becoming available for inherited muscle diseases which may also improve cardiac outcomes. Summary Cardiac involvement is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We suggest having a low threshold for considering the possibility of cardiac involvement in all patients with muscle disease. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.