Purpose of review
Osteoarthritis is a heterogeneous, multifactorial condition regulated by complex biological interactions at multiple levels. Comprehensive understanding of these regulatory interactions is required to develop feasible advances to improve patient outcomes. Improvements in technology have made extensive genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, proteomic, and metabolomic profiling possible. This review summarizes findings over the past 20 months related to omics technologies in osteoarthritis and examines how using a multiomics approach is necessary for advancing our understanding of osteoarthritis as a disease to improve precision osteoarthritis treatments.
Using the search terms ‘genomics’ or ‘transcriptomics’ or ‘epigenomics’ or ‘proteomics’ or ‘metabolomics’ and ‘osteoarthritis’ from January 1, 2018 to August 31, 2019, we identified advances in omics approaches applied to osteoarthritis. Trends include untargeted whole genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses leading to identification of novel molecular signatures, cell subpopulations and multiomics validation approaches.
To address the complexity of osteoarthritis, integration of multitissue analyses by multiomics approaches with the inclusion of longitudinal clinical data is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the disease process, and for appropriate development of efficacious diagnostics, prognostics, and biotherapeutics.