MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY AND RHEUMATIC DISEASES: Edited by Jose U. ScherDeadliest catch neutrophil extracellular traps in autoimmunityGoel, Rishi R.*; Kaplan, Mariana J.Author Information Systemic Autoimmunity Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA Correspondence to Mariana J. Kaplan, MD, Systemic Autoimmunity Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), 10 Center Drive/12N248C, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Rheumatology: January 2020 - Volume 32 - Issue 1 - p 64–70 doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000667 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To summarize recent evidence on the pathogenic effects of neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent findings NETs can orchestrate innate and adaptive immune dysregulation through diverse mechanisms. NETs induce potent inflammatory responses and represent sources of many autoantigens, creating a feed-forward loop that may perpetuate disease and lead to organ damage. NETs are also increasingly relevant in atherosclerosis and could contribute to the increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease in patients with autoimmunity. Summary NET formation is increased in a variety of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases and can have remarkable effects on cell and tissue-specific damage. Novel therapeutics that target NET formation or clearance is a promising strategy for clinical management of autoimmune diseases and may prevent chronic complications associated with these conditions. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.