Purpose of review
The present review describes the interferon (IFN)-signature currently emerging as a tool for the diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), and aims at presenting the interests and limitations of this recent tool for the clinics and the research.
Recent in-vivo and in-vitro transcriptomic studies have evidenced the involvement of IFNs in the pathogenesis of IIMs. A correlation between the IFN-signature and the clinical severity of IIMs has been established. Moreover, studies pointed out differences in the IFN-signature regarding the IIM subgroup (dermatomyositis, polymyositis, inclusion body myositis, anti-synthetase syndrome, immuno-mediated necrotizing myopathies), raising the hypothesis of several pathogenic processes in IIMs.
IIM pathogenesis remains partially understood. IFN-signature represents one of the main recent advances in the field. IFN-signature was identified thanks to transcriptomic analyses of tissues or cells from IIM patients (muscle, skin, blood cells, muscle cells) and should allow to establish new diagnosis and better monitoring of IIM patients. It also provides a tool for investigation of IIM pathogenesis. Nevertheless, IFN-signature still requires accurate definition in order to standardize its use, notably in the clinical practice.