Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: an updateLiu, Yudong; Kaplan, Mariana J.Current Opinion in Rheumatology: September 2018 - Volume 30 - Issue 5 - p 441–448 doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000528 SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS AND SJöGREN SYNDROME: Edited by Mariana J. Kaplan Abstract Author Information Purpose of review The mechanisms leading to the development of premature atherosclerosis and vascular injury in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain to be fully elucidated. This is a comprehensive review of recent research developments related to the understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in lupus. Recent findings SLE patients with lupus nephritis display significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction and CVD mortality than SLE patients without lupus nephritis. SLE disease-related parameters could be taken into consideration when calculating CVD risks. The type I interferon pathway is detrimental to the vasculature and may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. The level of low-density granulocytes, a distinct subset of proinflammatory neutrophils present in SLE, was independently associated with coronary plaque burden and endothelial dysfunction. Invariant natural killer T cells may promote an atheroprotective effect in SLE patients with asymptomatic atherosclerotic plaques. Oxidized lupus high-density lipoprotein promotes proinflammatory responses in macrophages. Summary Recent discoveries have further strengthened the critical role of SLE-related immune dysregulation and metabolic disturbances in promoting accelerated CVD. Understanding how these pathogenic factors promote vascular injury may provide better molecular candidates for therapeutic targeting, and ultimately to improve CVD outcomes. Systemic Autoimmunity Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Correspondence to Mariana J. Kaplan, MD, Systemic Autoimmunity Branch, NIAMS/NIH, 10 Center Drive, 12N248C, Bethesda, MD 20892–1930, USA. E-mail: Mariana.firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.