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An update on the role of type I interferons in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome

Thorlacius, Gudny Ellaa; Wahren-Herlenius, Mariea; Rönnblom, Larsb

doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000524

Purpose of review Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) share several clinical and laboratory features, including an overexpression of type I interferon (IFN) regulated genes. The genetic background to this IFN signature and the role of the type I IFN system in the disease process have been partly clarified. Here, we summarize the latest information concerning the type I IFN system in both diseases.

Recent findings A number of gene variants in the type I IFN signalling pathways associate with an increased risk for both SLE and pSS in several ethnicities. The function of some risk gene variants has been elucidated, as well as the importance of epigenetic changes in type I IFN regulated genes. MicroRNA-451 and miR-302d have been shown to target IFN regulatory factor 8 and 9, suggesting that noncoding RNAs can control the IFN system. A prominent type I IFN activation is related to several disease manifestations, and in SLE to a more severe disease phenotype. Phase II studies in SLE suggest beneficial effects of blocking the type I IFN receptor.

Summary The activated type I IFN system in SLE and pSS has a strong genetic component, is important in the disease etiopathogenesis and can be targeted.

aRheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm

bDepartment of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Rheumatology, Uppsala University, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden

Correspondence to Lars Rönnblom, Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Rheumatology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. E-mail:

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