Purpose of review
Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation of multiple organ systems. Pulmonary, cardiac, and neurologic involvements have the worst prognosis. Current recommendations for the therapeutic management and follow-up of sarcoidosis involving these critical organs will be reviewed.
In those sarcoidosis patients requiring immunosuppressive therapy, corticosteroids are used first at varying doses depending on the presenting manifestation. Patients with symptomatic pulmonary, cardiac, or neurologic involvement will be maintained on corticosteroids for at least a year. Many require a second immunosuppressive agent with methotrexate used most commonly. Anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, especially infliximab, are effective and recommendations for their use have been proposed.
Evidence-based treatment guidelines do not exist for most sarcoidosis clinical manifestations. Therefore, clinical care of these patients must rely on expert opinion. Patients are best served by a multidisciplinary approach to their care. Future research to identify environmental triggers, genetic associations, biomarkers for treatment response, and where to position new steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents is warranted.