MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY AND RHEUMATIC DISEASES: Edited by Jose U. ScherInflammation in bone physiology and pathologyAdamopoulos, Iannis E.a,bAuthor Information aDivision of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis bInstitute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children-Northern California, Sacramento, California, USA Correspondence to Iannis E. Adamopoulos M.Phil., D.Phil, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children Northern-California, University of California, Davis, 2425 Stockton Blvd, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. Tel: +1 916 453 2237; fax: +1 916 453 2288; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Rheumatology: January 2018 - Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 59-64 doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000449 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Bone is constantly being remodeled throughout adult life through constant anabolic and catabolic actions that maintain tissue homeostasis. A number of hormones, cytokines growth factors, and the proximity of various cells to bone surfaces influence this process. Inflammatory changes at the bone microenvironment result in alterations leading to both excessive bone loss and bone formation. Detailed understanding of the physiological and pathological mechanisms that dictate these changes will allow us to harness inflammatory signals in bone regeneration. Recent findings Recent reports have suggested that inflammatory signals are able to stimulate transcription factors that regulate osteoblast differentiation from their precursors. Summary In this review, we summarized current understanding of the roles of inflammation in bone resorption and bone formation, which give rise to different disorders and discuss the huge potential of harnessing these inflammatory signals to achieve bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.