Purpose of review
The metabolic syndrome is defined by the clustering of a number of cardiovascular risk factors and entails an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality from both cardiovascular disease and all causes. In the present paper, we review the most recent evidence on the association between hyperuricemia, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease.
Serum urate is frequently elevated in patients with the metabolic syndrome and increases with the number of components of this condition. Hyperuricemia has been related to decreased renal uric acid excretion, which may be mediated by enhanced proximal tubular sodium reabsorption and hyperinsulinemia. Recent epidemiologic studies have shed some light on the prognosis of hyperuricemia. While hyperuricemia appears to show a benign significance in low cardiovascular risk individuals, it clearly increases cardiovascular mortality in patients at high cardiovascular disease risk.
Clinicians should be aware of the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hyperuricemia or gout in order to control its components (high blood pressure, obesity, etc.) and hence reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease. Long-term, randomized interventional clinical trials are needed to test the hypothesis that urate-lowering therapy can reduce cardiovascular risk in these patients.