Purpose of review
Eosinophils are involved in combating parasitic, bacterial, viral infections as well as certain malignancies. However, they are also implicated in an array of upper and lower respiratory disease states. Through a deeper understanding of disease pathogenesis, targeted biologic therapies have revolutionized glucocorticoid sparing treatment of eosinophilic respiratory diseases. This review will focus on the impact of novel biologics on the management of asthma, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP).
Key immunologic pathways affecting Type 2 inflammation through immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and upstream alarmins such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), have led to novel drug developments. We explore the mechanism of action for Omalizumab, Mepolizumab, Benralizumab, Reslizumab, Dupilumab, and Tezepelumab, their respective Food and Drug Administration (FDA) indications, and biomarkers affecting treatment decisions. We also highlight investigational therapeutics that are likely to impact the future management of eosinophilic respiratory diseases.
Insight into the biology of eosinophilic respiratory diseases has been critical for understanding disease pathogenesis and has contributed to the development of effective eosinophil-targeted biologic interventions.