INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Alimuddin Zumla and David SC HuiDrug treatment of COVID-19 infectionLui, Gracea; Guaraldi, Giovannib Author Information aDepartment of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR bDepartment of Surgical, Medical, Dental and Morphological Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy Correspondence to Grace Lui, 9th floor, Lui Che Woo Clinical Sciences Building, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR. Tel: +852 35051716; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 29(3):p 174-183, May 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000953 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 6.6 million deaths globally. Tremendous efforts have been committed for the development of new and repurposed drugs for the treatment of COVID-19. Although different international and national guidelines share consensus in the management of COVID-19 disease with different levels of severity, new challenges have emerged, steering the need for ongoing research in advancing the clinical management of COVID-19. Recent findings This review focuses on recent data from randomized trials and postmarketing real-world evidence for the treatment of mild to moderate disease in the outpatient setting and patients hospitalized for COVID-19 with varying level of severity. Relevant data for treatment of the latest omicron sub-variants in people who received vaccination are presented. Challenges in special populations, including immunocompromised hosts, patients with renal failure and pregnant women, are also discussed. Summary Treatment of COVID-19 should be personalized according to host characteristics, degree of severity and available treatment options. Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.