DISEASES OF THE PLEURA: Edited by Richard LightEmerging concepts in pleural infectionChan, Ka Panga,b; Fitzgerald, Deirdre B.c,d; Lee, Y.C. Garyc,d Author Information aDepartment of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong bPrince of Wales Hospital, Sha Tin, Hong Kong cCentre for Respiratory Health, University of Western Australia, Perth dDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia Correspondence to Y.C. Gary Lee, MBCbB, PhD, FRACP, FRCP, FCCP, School of Medicine, UWA, 533 Harry Perkins Building, QE II Medical Centre, Perth, WA 6009, Australia. Tel. +61 8 61510913;. e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine: July 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 4 - p 367-373 doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000487 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Pleural infection remains an important pulmonary disease, causing significant morbidity and mortality. There is a resurgence of disease burden despite introduction of antibiotics and pneumococcal vaccines. A revisit of the pathogenesis and update on intervention may improve the care of pleural infection. Recent findings Recent studies have uncovered the prognostic implication of the presence of a pleural effusion in patients with pneumonia. Identifying where the bacteria lives may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Over-exaggerated pleural inflammation may underlie development of parapneumonic effusion as indirect evidence and a randomized study in children raised a role of corticosteroids in parapneumonic pleural effusions, but data are lacking for adults. Optimization of the delivery regimen of intrapleural fibrinolytic and deoxyribonuclease therapy is ongoing. Summary The review aims to review the current practice and explore new directions of treatment on pleural infection. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.