SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian J. WilliamsObstructive sleep apnea during rapid eye movement sleep clinical relevance and therapeutic implicationsAlzoubaidi, Mohammed; Mokhlesi, Babak Author Information Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Sleep Disorders Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA Correspondence to Babak Mokhlesi, MD, MSc, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sleep Disorders Center, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave, MC6076/Room M630, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Tel: +1 773 702 2181; fax: +1 773 702 4736; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine: November 2016 - Volume 22 - Issue 6 - p 545-554 doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000319 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition that has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, impaired glucose metabolism and daytime functional impairment. Compared with nonrapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with higher sympathetic activity and cardiovascular instability in healthy individuals and more so in patients with OSA. Recent findings Recent studies have indicated that REM OSA is independently associated with prevalent and incident hypertension, nondipping of nocturnal blood pressure, increased insulin resistance and impairment of human spatial navigational memory. Summary These findings have significant clinical implications for the duration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use that is needed to decrease the health risks associated with OSA. Further research is needed to establish the duration of CPAP needed to effectively treat REM OSA and to evaluate patients with REM OSA with an overall normal apnea-hypopnea index. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.