Purpose of review
Using the evidence published over the last 2 years, this review discusses the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV-related pulmonary infections other than mycobacterial disease.
Longstanding, vertically acquired and apparently stable HIV infection is associated with significant and symptomatic small airways disease in African adolescents. The use of population-based pneumococcal vaccination in children is changing the severity and serotypes associated with HIV-related pneumococcal disease. Data on the use of blood 1,3,β-D-glucan show it has promise as a rule-out test for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP).
With widespread antiretroviral medication usage, the pattern of HIV-associated pulmonary disease is changing. Whereas opportunistic infections such as PCP still occur in people not using antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-related infections are similar to those present in the general population. Chronic lung disease is more prevalent, leading to its own infectious complications. The use of specific immunizations against infections is important, though their precise benefit with concomitant widespread ART and population-based vaccination programmes in the non-HIV community is undetermined.