Purpose of review
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major public health problem all over the world. The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a matter of concern for physicians when choosing antibiotic treatment in patients with CAP. This review focuses on the current recommendations of antibiotic treatment, recent information concerning antibiotic resistance of pathogens, and the advances in antibiotic therapy in the field of CAP.
A significant increase in the frequency of resistance to the antibiotics commonly used against causative pathogens of CAP, such as β-lactams or macrolides, has been reported in recent years. At present, the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae remains low. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 have been reported as causes of severe CAP. Several newly-developed antibiotics, including cepholosporins, ketolides and quinolones, present marked activity in vitro against the main causative pathogens of CAP. Many randomized controlled trials have demonstrated equivalent efficacy of the newer antibiotics compared with conventional antimicrobial therapy in mild-to-moderate CAP.
An increase of resistance to the antibiotics used in CAP has been documented over the years. Several new antibiotics have been developed for treating CAP, with promising results. However, data regarding their efficacy and safety in patients with severe CAP are lacking.