Purpose of review
The first era in the discoveries of respiratory viruses occured between 1933 and 1965 when influenza virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus
, parainfluenza virus and coronavirus
(CoV) were found by virus culture. In the 1990s, the development of high throughput viral detection and diagnostics instruments increased diagnostic sensitivity and enabled the search for new viruses. This article briefly reviews the clinical significance of newly discovered respiratory viruses.
In 2001, the second era in the discoveries of respiratory viruses began, and several new respiratory viruses and their subgroups have been found: human metapneumovirus
, CoVs NL63 and HKU1, human bocavirus
and human rhinovirus
C and D groups.
Currently, a viral cause of pediatric respiratory illness is identifiable in up to 95% of cases, but the detection rates decrease steadily by age, to 30–40% in the elderly. The new viruses cause respiratory illnesses such as common cold, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia. Rarely, acute respiratory failure may occur. The clinical role of other new viruses, KI and WU polyomaviruses and the torque teno virus
, as respiratory pathogens is not clear.