Interstitial lung disease: Edited by Demosthenes BourosStem cell therapy in pulmonary fibrosisTzouvelekis, Argyrisa; Antoniadis, Antonisb; Bouros, DemosthenesaAuthor Information aDepartment of Pneumonology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis bDepartment of Pneumonology, General Hospital of Serres, Serres, Greece Correspondence to Professor Demosthenes Bouros, MD, PhD, FCCP, Head, Department of Pneumonology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece Tel: +30 25510 75096; fax: +30 25510 76106; e-mail: [email protected],[email protected] Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine: September 2011 - Volume 17 - Issue 5 - p 368-373 doi: 10.1097/MCP.0b013e328348744f Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review In the last years, we have witnessed an explosion in preclinical data relating to the isolation, differentiation and application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a treatment option in animal models of lung fibrosis and inflammation. The scope of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the roles of MSCs in lung tissue repair and regeneration and to highlight future therapeutic perspectives and clinical applications in safety and efficacy trials. Recent findings Although there have been interesting studies of cell therapy for diseases of many systems, there has been a paucity of preclinical and clinical studies regarding pulmonary fibrosis. Today, we have made progress with respect to the understanding of the mechanisms of action and application of MSCs in animal models of lung fibrosis as regulators of tissue remodeling and immune response. There are only a few ongoing clinical trials involving MSCs in chronic lung diseases and extrapolation of these data to underline future therapeutic applications in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Summary Adult MSCs may prove to be a valuable therapeutic option in lung tissue rescue and repair based on their ready availability, immunomodulatory effects and capacity for cell differentiation. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.