Infectious diseases: Edited by Alimuddin ZumlaDrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in southern AfricaGrobusch, Martin Petera,b,cAuthor Information aDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa bMedical Research Unit, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Lambarene, Gabon cInstitute of Tropical Medicine, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany Correspondence to Professor Martin P. Grobusch, MD, MSc, DTM&H, Chair of Infectious Diseases and Head, Infectious Diseases Unit, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2196, Johannesburg, South Africa Tel: +27 11488 3118; fax: +27 11643 8777; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine: May 2010 - Volume 16 - Issue 3 - p 180–185 doi: 10.1097/MCP.0b013e3283378680 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is of increasing global concern. One of the hardest hit regions is southern Africa. This study focuses on a concise update on recently published developments in the field. Recent findings There is mounting evidence from high-coprevalence areas that the TB and HIV pandemics must be viewed as an entity and tackled together. In that context, it has become clear that a shift may be required from standard hospital-based models of care towards community-based approaches. Innovative rapid diagnostics to detect TB drug resistance suitable for the use in resource-poor settings and novel drugs effective against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are currently developed. Summary In order to allow for a maximum impact of novel interventions on the problem of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB, public health systems and existing TB programs must be strengthened significantly. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.