Bullae are usually associated with varying degrees of emphysema, and bullous emphysema may be an appropriate term for bullous diseases. Recent advances in high-resolution computed tomography and thoracoscopic surgery allow us to improve both our knowledge of as well as the surgical outcomes for bullous emphysema. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of bullae and their association with emphysema are not yet elucidated. Further investigation, including animal studies, may be helpful in solving the questions from the perspectives of etiology, pathology, and function in bullous emphysema
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