GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRYThe role of diet in preventing and reducing cognitive declineAngeloni, Cristinaa; Businaro, Ritab; Vauzour, DavidcAuthor Information aSchool of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Camerino bDepartment of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy cNorwich Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Correspondence to David Vauzour, Norwich Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. Tel: +44 0 1603 591732; fax: +44 0 1603 593752; e-mail: D.Vauzour@uea.ac.uk Current Opinion in Psychiatry: July 2020 - Volume 33 - Issue 4 - p 432-438 doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000605 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review summarises the most recent evidence regarding the effects of diet in preventing and reducing age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent findings Recent evidence indicates that nutraceuticals and whole diet approaches may protect against the development of age-related cognitive decline and pathological neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective effects are diverse depending on the nutrient employed and may involve a reduction of neuroinflammation, an activation of the endogenous antioxidant defence system and a modulation of the gut microbiota structure and function. Summary This review summarises the existing evidence in favour of diet as a viable alternative approach to directly impact cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. The single nutrient (polyphenols, B vitamins, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) versus whole diet approach (Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, MIND, Nordic, ketogenic) is presented and discussed. Potential mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of these diets are also described. Implementation of large-scale preventive interventions based on dietary patterns identified as being beneficial to brain health should be a research and public health priority, ideally in conjunction with other health-promoting lifestyle factors. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.