NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. SachdevIs hospitalisation a risk factor for cognitive decline in the elderly?Chinnappa-Quinn, Luciaa,b; Bennett, Michaelc,d; Makkar, Steve Roberte; Kochan, Nicole A.e; Crawford, John D.e; Sachdev, Perminder S.e,fAuthor Information aSchool of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington bDepartment of Anaesthesia, Eastern Health, Melbourne cPrince of Wales Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington dDepartment of Anaesthesia and Hyperbaric Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick eCentre for Healthy Brain and Ageing, University of New South Wales fNeuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia Correspondence to Lucia Chinnappa-Quinn, Department of Anaesthesia, Maroondah Hospital, Davey Drive, Ringwood East, Victoria 3135, Australia. Tel: +61 3 413186122; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.co-psychiatry.com). Current Opinion in Psychiatry: March 2020 - Volume 33 - Issue 2 - p 170-177 doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000565 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Cognitive decline is frequently reported after hospitalisation in the contexts of surgery, delirium and critical care. The question not adequately addressed is whether all types of acute hospitalisations increase the risk of cognitive decline. As acute hospitalisations are common in the elderly, who are also vulnerable to cognitive decline, this possible association is of significant concern. Recent findings This review summarises cognitive outcomes from recent observational studies investigating acute hospitalisation (emergent and elective) in older age adults. Studies were identified from searching Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases and citations lists. The highest incidence of cognitive decline has been reported following critical care admissions and admissions complicated by delirium, although all types of acute hospitalisations are implicated. Age is the most consistent risk factor for cognitive decline. Several etiological and therapeutic aspects are being investigated, particularly the measurement of inflammatory biomarkers and treatment with anti-inflammatory medications. Summary Acute hospitalisation for any reason appears to increase the risk of cognitive decline in older adults, but the cause remains elusive. Future research must clarify the nature and modifiers of posthospitalisation cognitive change, a priority in the face of an ageing population. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.