NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Edited by Perminder S. Sachdev and Michael ValenzuelaModifiable risk factors for young onset dementiaCations, Monicaa; Withall, Adrienneb; Draper, Brianc,d Author Information aCollege of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide bSchool of Public Health and Community Medicine, UNSW Sydney cDementia Centre for Research Collaboration, School of Psychiatry, UNSW Sydney, Sydney dAcademic Department for Old Age Psychiatry, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia Correspondence to Monica Cations, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Tel: +61 872218338; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Psychiatry 32(2):p 138-143, March 2019. | DOI: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000475 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Although young onset dementia (YOD) causes high levels of burden and distress, factors that contribute to its onset are not well understood. Identifying relevant modifiable risk and protective factors for YOD can inform efforts to prevent or delay onset of symptoms to later in life. Recent findings Studies of modifiable factors for YOD have increased in frequency in recent years. Poor educational attainment and low socioeconomic status, a history of heavy alcohol use, and poor cardiovascular health may be key targets for YOD prevention or delay. Traumatic brain injury has attracted significant attention but evidence of its importance is limited except in cases occurring secondarily to the injury. Summary A growing body of evidence suggests that modifiable risk factors have a role in modulating the age of dementia onset. Clinicians should be aware that many people with YOD will present with complex histories of multifactorial (including modifiable and nonmodifiable) risk exposure. Exploring trajectories of risk and gene–environment interactions is an important future research direction and will inform targeted prevention efforts. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.