Recent advances in behavioral pediatrics have included management of nocturnal enuresis, encopresis, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and the provision of special education services for children with special needs. The major emphasis in enuresis has been on behavioral and pharmacological intervention. In encopresis, it has been on the search for concomitant behavioral problems. Children with attention-deficit disorder have benefited from research in both the behavioral and pharmacological management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In the area of special education services, recent legislative changes have extended services to both younger children (from birth to age 3 years) and to older children (up to age 21 years). Psychiatrists need to know what services are provided by the schools in order to adequately advise parents regarding their options.
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