REVIEWImmunotherapy approaches for rare pediatric solid tumors: advances and future directionsFierro Pineda, Juan C.a,b; Wedekind, Mary Francesa; Glod, John W.a Author Information aPediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health bDivision of Pediatric Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Correspondence to John W. Glod, MD, PhD, Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bldg. 10-CRC, Rm 1W3750, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Pediatrics: November 25, 2022 - Volume - Issue - 10.1097/MOP.0000000000001206 doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000001206 Buy PAP Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Immunotherapy for pediatric tumors is rapidly evolving. From major successes in pediatric hematologic malignancies, immunotherapy utility increased in the pediatric solid tumor landscape. Numerous pediatric solid tumors are defined as rare with limitations in diagnosis and treatment. This review will describe four major immunotherapies used in pediatrics and discuss results seen in rare pediatric tumors. We will also briefly review the challenges of immunotherapy in solid tumors and opportunities to drive this therapy forward. Recent findings Despite rare success employing immunotherapy for pediatric solid tumors, recently there have been several successes in pediatric rare solid tumors. After describing the evolving landscape of rare pediatric tumors, we will demonstrate the successes or disappointments of immunotherapy. We will describe the mechanism of four immunotherapies used in the pediatrics, followed by the published results. Finally, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities for immunotherapies in pediatric rare tumors. Summary Pediatric rare tumors are lacking in treatment options. Despite numerous disappointments utilizing immunotherapies in the more common pediatric solid tumors, there have been several successes within the pediatric rare tumor landscape. Much work is still needed to enhance our understanding and knowledge on utilizing these immunotherapies for pediatric rare solid tumors. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.