DERMATOLOGY: Edited by Albert YanCommon pediatric infestations: update on diagnosis and treatment of scabies, head lice, and bed bugsOgbuefi, Nonyea; Kenner-Bell, Brandib,c Author Information aNorthwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine bDivision of Dermatology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago cDepartment of Dermatology and Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA Correspondence to Brandi Kenner-Bell, MD, Division of Dermatology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box #107, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Pediatrics: August 2021 - Volume 33 - Issue 4 - p 410-415 doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000001031 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of the review This review will update pediatric providers on the recent data regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of common skin infestations affecting children and adolescents. Recent findings Standard superficial skin biopsy for scabies and the vacuum method for head lice can increase diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. There is growing resistance to some of the traditional treatments for scabies and head lice, and progress has been made in finding newer and potentially more effective treatments, such as oral moxidectin for scabies and abametapir for head lice. Recent studies have established the safety of traditional treatments, such as permethrin and oral ivermectin in infants and small children. Summary Permethrin and ivermectin are both considered safe and effective for children and adolescents with scabies. Permethrin is generally considered safe in infants less than two months of age. Proper application of permethrin is critical, and providers should emphasize proper application technique. Treatment of head lice should only be initiated with active infestations. Resistance to permethrin continues to increase and other options are now available, including an over-the-counter topical ivermectin formulation. Identification and eradication of bed bug infestations are crucial in preventing bedbug bites. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.