Advances in sequencing techniques and systematic cohort-analysis of patients with autoinflammatory phenotypes have enabled a burst in the recognition of new autoinflammatory diseases and contributed to the description of the mechanisms involved in autoinflammation. This review focuses on new genetic and mechanistic discoveries that have broadened the definition of autoinflammatory diseases in the context of the established landscape, providing new therapeutic opportunities and avenues for further discoveries.
Mechanistic insights of inflammatory diseases open opportunities for new targeted therapies. Advances in high-throughput screening of small-molecule inhibitors accelerate the discovery of new and more specific therapeutic options. Recent evidence establishes IL-18 as a driver of macrophage activation, emerging as a new biomarker and therapeutic target. Finally, the identification of escape of nonsense-mediated decay as the genetic mechanism resulting in a monogenic immune-dysregulatory disease, unveils a possibility for future discoveries.
Recent mechanistic findings in autoinflammatory diseases as well as the identification of specific biomarkers and discovery of new diseases, continue to pave the way for ever more specific targeted approaches. These therapies are not only applicable to monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes but also for other diseases in which the same pathways are dysregulated.
aDepartment of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine
bTexas Children's Hospital, Division of Pediatric Immunology, Allergy, and Rheumatology, Houston, Texas, USA
cInstituto de Ciencias e Innovación en Medicina, Universidad del Desarrollo, Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Chile
Correspondence to M. Cecilia Poli, Programa de Inmunología Traslacional, Facultad de Medicina, Clínica Alemana-Universidad del Desarrollo, Av. Las Condes 12438, 3er piso, Chile. Tel: +56 2 23279136; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org