NEUROLOGY: Edited by Robert C. TaskerThe development of moral sense and moral thinkingCarpendale, Jeremy I.M.a; Hammond, Stuart I.b Author Information aDepartment of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia bUniversity of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Correspondence to Jeremy I.M. Carpendale, Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada. Tel: +1 778 782 3607; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Pediatrics: December 2016 - Volume 28 - Issue 6 - p 743-747 doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000412 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The review critically evaluates recent claims that infants have innate knowledge of morality and examines the sources of moral norms. Recent findings Many studies show that toddlers readily help adults with daily tasks. A more contentious set of studies suggests that young infants prefer actors who help others to those who hinder them. Some researchers have interpreted these findings as indicating that morality is innately present in humans. Others look to alternative explanations in developmental systems theory. Summary Explaining the emergence of morality as innate, or wholly socialized, is problematic; instead morality could emerge in a developmental system in which children's early capacities are shaped by interpersonal engagement. Children's improving ability to coordinate with others at a practical level is later transformed through language and reflective thought, as children gain the ability to talk about what was previously implicit in interaction. Throughout, parents and caregivers have many opportunities to foster children's moral development in daily interactions. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.