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Sustained inflation during neonatal resuscitation

Keszler, Martin

Current Opinion in Pediatrics: April 2015 - Volume 27 - Issue 2 - p 145–151
doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000204
NEONATOLOGY AND PERINATOLOGY: Edited by Richard A. Polin and Tara M. Randis
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Purpose of review Sustained inflation performed shortly after birth to help clear lung fluid and establish functional residual capacity in preterm infants is gaining popularity, but definitive evidence for its effectiveness is lacking. Although there is a sound physiologic basis for this approach, and much preclinical experimental evidence of effectiveness, the results of recent animal studies and clinical trials have been inconsistent.

Recent findings The most recent data from a multicenter randomized trial suggest a modest benefit of sustained inflation in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. However, the impact may be more modest than earlier retrospective cohort comparisons suggested. The trend toward more airleak and a higher rate of intraventricular hemorrhage is worrisome. Sustained inflation may be ineffective unless some spontaneous respiratory effort is present. Several on-going trials should further clarify the putative benefits of sustained inflation.

Summary Delivery room sustained inflation is an attractive concept that holds much promise, but widespread clinical application should await definitive evidence from on-going clinical trials,

Department of Pediatrics, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

Correspondence to Martin Keszler, MD, Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02905, USA. Tel: +1 401 274 1122x47490; e-mail: mkeszler@wihri.org

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