Office pediatricsImmunizations, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and animal-induced injuriesBennett, Sean R; Brennan, Beth; Bernstein, Henry HAuthor Information Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA Correspondence to Henry H. Bernstein, DO, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA Tel: +1 603 653 9663; fax: +1 603 650 0910; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Pediatrics: August 2007 - Volume 19 - Issue 4 - p 492-502 doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32823a3c77 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To report recent research findings and new recommendations on immunizations, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and animal-induced injuries. Recent findings Vaccines against rotavirus and human papilloma virus have entered clinical use. Varicella outbreaks among previously vaccinated children have prompted the recommendation for a two-dose varicella vaccine series. Broader coverage for influenza vaccination is now recommended in the US and Canada. Diagnosis and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia uses population and hour-based norms for total serum bilirubin and assessment of risk factors. Delayed cord clamping is not apparently a risk factor for jaundice but warrants more study. Universal predischarge screening shows promise but is not yet officially recommended. New treatments for hyperbilirubinemia are being evaluated. Dogs are the chief cause of animal bites in children and the largest reservoir for rabies worldwide. In North America and Europe, cats and wild animals cause most human rabies. Postexposure prophylaxis should follow region-appropriate guidelines. Summary New vaccines are available against rotavirus and human papilloma virus. Changes have been made to official immunization recommendations. Appropriate vaccine use can reduce the pediatric disease burden further. Hyperbilirubinemia is the subject of ongoing study, which may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment protocols and reduce the incidence of acute bilirubin encephalopathy. The best tool for rabies prevention after an animal bite is prompt postexposure prophylaxis. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.