Emergency and critical care pediatricsStatus asthmaticus in childrenMannix, Rebekah; Bachur, RichardAuthor Information Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA Correspondence to Rebekah Mannix, MD, Attending Physician, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA Tel: +1 617 355 6624; fax: +1 617 730 0335; e-mail: Rebekah.firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Pediatrics: June 2007 - Volume 19 - Issue 3 - p 281-287 doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e3280f77531 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The prevalence of severe asthma in children has risen in the past few decades. The present review explores our current understanding of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of status asthmaticus in children. Recent findings The pathophysiology of inflammation and airway hyperactivity continues to be a source of research. Early initiation of inhaled β-agonists and oral or parenteral steroids remain the standard of care in the treatment of status asthmaticus. Other treatment modalities such as magnesium and intravenous β-agonists show some benefit. There is a resurgence of interest in the use of methylxanthines. Alternatives to endotracheal intubation show some promise in preventing respiratory failure. Summary Asthma remains the third leading cause of hospitalization in children younger than 15 years old. Researchers continue to explore the efficacy of old and new treatment modalities. Future research efforts targeting at-risk populations could dramatically decrease asthma morbidity and mortality. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.