Dyslipidemia increases the risk of cardiovascular events among individuals with renal disease, and there is a growing body of evidence that it hastens the progression of renal disease itself. Children with nephrotic syndrome or renal transplants have easily recognized hyperlipidemia. Among those with chronic renal insufficiency or end-stage renal disease, detection of dyslipidemia requires more careful analysis and knowledge of normal pediatric ranges. Disordered lipoprotein metabolism results from complex interactions among many factors, including the primary disease process, use of medications such as corticosteroids, the presence of malnutrition or obesity, and diet. The systematic treatment of dyslipidemia in children with chronic renal disease is controversial because conclusive data regarding the risks and benefits are lacking. Hepatic 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), fibrates, plant stanols, bile acid-binding resins, and dietary manipulation are options for individualized treatment. Prospective investigations are required to guide clinical management.