AUDITORY AND VESTIBULAR SCIENCE: Edited by Rodney C. DiazState of the art regeneration of the tympanic membraneSagiv, Doron; Chin, Oliver Y.; Diaz, Rodney C.; Brodie, Hilary A.Author Information Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA Correspondence to Doron Sagiv, MD, Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis Medical Center, 2521 Stockton Boulevard, Suite 7200, Sacramento, California, USA. Tel: +1 916 734 5400; e-mail: [email protected], [email protected] Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery: October 2020 - Volume 28 - Issue 5 - p 314-322 doi: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000646 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review One of the most common diseases of the tympanic membrane is a perforation, and tympanoplasty is one of the more common procedures in otolaryngology. Tympanic membrane regeneration and bioengineering aim to improve the success rate of the procedure, increase the availability of different scaffolds and provide innovative tools that will simplify the surgical technique and make it accessible for surgeons with varying expertise level. This review aims to raise awareness of current tissue engineering developments in tympanic membrane regeneration and how they may augment current clinical practices. We focus here on achievements in tympanic membrane cell cultures and on innovations in development of new scaffolds and growth factors that enhance regeneration of patient's native tympanic membranes. Recent findings In recent years, great achievements were reached in the field of tympanic membrane regeneration in the three hallmarks of bioengineering: cells, scaffolds and bioactive molecules. New techniques for modeling normal tympanic membrane proliferation were developed, as well as for isolation and expansion of normal tympanic membrane keratinocytes from miniature samples of scarred tissue. Ongoing clinical trials aim to seal the perforation by applying different scaffolds infiltrated by growth factors on the tympanic membrane. Summary Research efforts in tympanic membrane regeneration continue to seek the ideal single tissue-engineered substitute. Recent advances in tympanic membrane bioengineering include new types of scaffolds that may augment and provide a safe and effective alternative to the current gold-standard autograft. New bioactive molecules may simplify the surgical procedure and reduce surgical time by augmenting the native tympanic membrane regeneration. Several groups of bioengineering scientists and neurotologists are continuing to move forward and develop new strategies, seeking to create a fully functional tissue-engineered tympanic membrane. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.