OTOLOGY AND NEURO-OTOLOGY: Edited by Ravi N. Samy and Nael ShomanOncolytic virotherapy: a potential therapeutic approach for cholesteatomaLipschitz, Nogaa; Earl, Brian R.a,b; Cripe, Timothy P.c,d; Samy, Ravi N.a,e,fAuthor Information aDepartment of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine bDepartment of Communication Sciences & Disorders, University of Cincinnati College of Allied Health Sciences, Cincinnati, Ohio cDivision of Hematology, Oncology, Blood and Marrow Transplant, Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital dCenter for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio eNeurosensory Disorders Center at University of Cincinnati Gardner Neuroscience Institute fCincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Correspondence to Ravi N. Samy, MD, FACS, Chief, Division of Otology/Neurotology, Program Director, Neurotology and Advanced Otology Fellowships, Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine/Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and Neurosensory Disorders Center at University of Cincinnati Gardner Neuroscience Institute, 213 Albert Sabin Way, MSB 6407, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0528, USA. Tel: +1 513 558 1273; fax: +1 513 558 5203; e-mail: Ravi.Samy@UC.edu Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery: October 2020 - Volume 28 - Issue 5 - p 281-285 doi: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000651 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To review the principles of oncolytic virotherapy and summarize the recent preliminary evidence on the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy for cholesteatoma (CHST) treatment in vitro in human CHST cells and in a gerbil CHST model. Recent findings The use of oncolytic virotherapy for nonmalignant lesions is innovative. In-vitro results showed that oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1 (oHSV) selectively targets and kills CHST cells. In a gerbil model of CHST, local oHSV injections were associated with a decrease in CHST volume and modulation of bony changes. Summary Surgical treatment options for CHST are limited by high morbidity and recidivism, emphasizing the need for developing treatment alternatives. Preliminary results support the potential therapeutic effect of oncolytic virotherapy on CHST, yet further research is needed to evaluate this novel approach. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.