Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is a rare and often fatal disease, that remains incompletely understood. Case series and literature reviews constitute most of the literature on AIFRS, and act as the standards by which we treat these extremely complex patients. This review discusses management of AIFRS, with focuses on optimal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Mortality rates remain high, around 50% overall, though some recent studies have shown higher survival rates with early diagnosis and complete surgical resection. Some recent publications on AIFRS have focused on the utility of frozen section analysis both to diagnose and potentially guide the completeness of endoscopic surgical debridement. It was also recently shown that complete endoscopic resection of disease leads to higher survival than when disease was incompletely resected. Additionally, a new antifungal agent was recently approved by the FDA, which has a more favorable pharmacologic and side effect profile, though more studies are necessary to determine its utility.
Early diagnosis requires identification of sinusitis symptoms in immunocompromised patients, followed by intranasal biopsy and frozen section analysis. Early surgical debridement and antifungal therapy then remain the cornerstones of AIFRS management.
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Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Grand Blvd, Detroit, Michigan, USA
Correspondence to John R. Craig, MD, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 W. Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. Tel: +1 313 971 9320; fax: +1 313 916 7263; e-mail: JCraig1@hfhs.org.
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