Purpose of review
Although chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and allergy share common inflammatory mechanisms, there is no evidence of cause-and-effect relationship. In this review, we present new studies investigating the complex immunology that links these diseases. Advances in new therapies as well as evidence regarding indication and timing of surgery, especially of more complex cases, are highlighted.
New studies have endotyped patients in an effort to describe the exact inflammatory profile of each phenotype, whereas described cytokines seem to play a significant role in amplification of T2 inflammation, directly or via innate lymphoid cells. New mAbs that block specific cytokines of these pathways have been developed and seem to show reduced asthma severity as well as improved sinonasal outcomes. Moreover, it has been shown that operating early in the course of disease leads not only to bigger improvements in SNOT-22 outcomes but also to reduced asthma incidence postoperatively in refractory cases.
Applying data from current studies in clinical practice, we could better manage refractory cases with asthma and polyps, both medically and surgically. Treatment has to be patient-centered, and this demands a multidisciplinary-team approach of the airway diseases.