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Beyond dilation: current concepts in endoscopic airway stenting and reconstruction

Gnagi, Sharon H.; White, David R.

Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery: December 2016 - Volume 24 - Issue 6 - p 516–521
doi: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000310
PEDIATRIC OTOLARYNGOLOGY: Edited by Lisa Buckmiller and Taylor Fordham
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Purpose of review To discuss current modalities of endoscopic airway management beyond balloon dilation therapy.

Recent findings Advances continue to be made through technology and bioengineering with exciting potential in the pediatric airway. Smaller robots and instrumentation allow increased endoscopic surgical success. Biodegradable stents and bioengineered grafts are on the horizon for use in airway surgery. Dysphonia following airway reconstruction is of increasing recognition with new endoscopic treatments being performed. Supraglottoplasty is further recognized as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea for laryngomalacia diagnosed on sleep endoscopy. Interarytenoid injection may be beneficial in the normal larynx for aspiration and dysphagia as well as diagnosing and treating type I laryngeal clefts.

Summary Endoscopic airway surgery continues to be a popular and effective method of treating the pediatric airway. Technological advances such as in robotics may have an increasing role in the future of endoscopic airway surgery in children. Bioengineered airway adjuncts including biodegradable airway stents look to be promising in the future treatment of airway stenosis.

Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA

Correspondence to David R. White, MD, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550 Charleston, SC 29425, USA. Tel: +1 843 792 7343; fax: +1 843 792 5271; e-mail: whitedr@musc.edu

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