Purpose of review
To review and discuss recent literature regarding the use of antibiotics in relation to endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), including perioperative antibiotics, postoperative antibiotics, and antibiotic usage in the setting of postoperative packing.
Perioperative antibiotics are not recommended by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. The necessity of antibiotics following ESS is a heavily debated topic. Most studies show little to no improvement in outcomes. Significant improvement in quality-of-life outcomes and endoscopic scoring appears limited to the early postoperative period using conventional postoperative antibiotics. Prolonged macrolide therapy may improve long-term outcomes. There is no convincing evidence to show the need for antibiotics in the setting of postoperative packing.
The available evidence regarding antibiotic use in relation to ESS overall fails to demonstrate routine benefit; however, the studies have various limitations. Overall, future, well designed, large-scale prospective studies would be beneficial to direct appropriate antibiotic use, whether systemic or topical, in relation to ESS.