The purpose of this article is to review recent literature regarding pediatric recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) published within the last year. By reviewing and assessing these articles, a more clear understanding regarding the etiology and management of pediatric RRP can be obtained, allowing physicians to better care for their pediatric RRP patients.
Pediatric RRP continues to be an extremely difficult management problem for otolaryngologists. This disease process continues to be a significant burden on the health care system and is a significant cause of morbidity in affected patients and their families. The incidence of RRP continues to be approximately 3.96 per 100,000 in the pediatric population. It has been noted recently that approximately 7 of every 1000 children born to mothers with vaginal condyloma develop pediatric RRP. Although the mainstay of surgical management has traditionally been the CO2 laser, newer surgical techniques have demonstrated efficacy in the management of pediatric RRP patients, including powered instrumentation and the pulse-dye laser. The traditional adjuvant medical therapies used for pediatric RRP continue to be commonly used, including interferon-α2a, retinoic acid, and indol-3-carbinol/diindolylmethane (I3C/DIM). Recently cidofovir has demonstrated efficacy in selected patients. In addition, current research regarding vaccine therapy for pediatric RRP has shown promise. Basic science research in the field of immunology has demonstrated multiple defects in cell-mediated immunity, which has shed further light on the etiology of pediatric RRP.
Pediatric RRP continues to be a highly morbid disease process. New surgical and medical therapies offer hope for better control of this disease in affected patients. Recent advances in immunologic research offer the hope of immune system modulation and augmentation as potential future treatment modalities to better control this disease process.
Department of Pediatrics and Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
Correspondence to Brian J. Wiatrak, MD, FAAP, FACS, Pediatric ENT Associates/Children's South, 1940 Elmer J. Bissell Road, Birmingham, AL 35243, USA
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