Mitochondrial disease is a heterogeneous group of energy metabolism disorders that present across all ages with a wide range of ocular or multisystemic manifestations. This review focuses on recent progress made toward understanding the various ophthalmologic manifestations of primary mitochondrial diseases and discusses the implications of mitochondrial dysfunction, placing particular emphasis on recent investigations into the pathogenesis and emerging therapies for mitochondrial-based ophthalmologic disorders.
Novel pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations continue to be detected in diverse ethnic populations for primary mitochondrial ophthalmologic disorders that commonly affect the optic nerve, retina, and extraocular muscles. Promising antioxidant and gene therapy approaches are being actively investigated to treat these ophthalmologic manifestations, as in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Mitochondrial dysfunction is also increasingly implicated in common ophthalmologic disorders of aging, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Several proteins recently recognized to play a role in the mitochondrial oxidative stress response within retinal cells, such as prohibitin and MMP2, may serve as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for common ophthalmologic disorders. Therapies that inhibit mitochondrial function and induce apoptosis within tumor cells, such as EDL-155 and curcumin, may offer novel therapeutic agents for ocular neoplasms such as retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma.
Primary mitochondrial genetic disease manifestations can involve almost all aspects of the eye. Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized as playing a causative role in the common ophthalmologic disorders in aging. This understanding has unleashed a range of emerging therapeutic approaches for mitochondrial-based ophthalmologic disorders directed at optimizing mitochondrial function.
Divisions of Human Genetics and Child Development, Rehabilitation, and Metabolic Disease, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Correspondence to Marni J. Falk, MD, ARC 1002C, 3615 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Tel: +1 215 590 4564; fax: +1 267 426 2876; e-mail: email@example.com