ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE/BIG DATA: Edited by Cecilia S. Lee, Aaron Y. Lee and Daniel TingArtificial intelligence in dementiaRichardson, Alexander; Robbins, Cason B.; Wisely, Clayton E.; Henao, Ricardo; Grewal, Dilraj S.; Fekrat, Sharon Author Information Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA Correspondence to Sharon Fekrat, MD, Professor of Ophthalmology and Neurology; Associate Professor of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Box 3802 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Tel: +1 919 684 8111; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 33(5):p 425-431, September 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000881 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Artificial intelligence tools are being rapidly integrated into clinical environments and may soon be incorporated into dementia diagnostic paradigms. A comprehensive review of emerging trends will allow physicians and other healthcare providers to better anticipate and understand these powerful tools. Recent findings Machine learning models that utilize cerebral biomarkers are demonstrably effective for dementia identification and prediction; however, cerebral biomarkers are relatively expensive and not widely available. As eye images harbor several ophthalmic biomarkers that mirror the state of the brain and can be clinically observed with routine imaging, eye-based machine learning models are an emerging area, with efficacy comparable with cerebral-based machine learning models. Emerging machine learning architectures like recurrent, convolutional, and partially pretrained neural networks have proven to be promising frontiers for feature extraction and classification with ocular biomarkers. Summary Machine learning models that can accurately distinguish those with symptomatic Alzheimer's dementia from those with mild cognitive impairment and normal cognition as well as predict progressive disease using relatively inexpensive and accessible ocular imaging inputs are impactful tools for the diagnosis and risk stratification of Alzheimer's dementia continuum. If these machine learning models can be incorporated into clinical care, they may simplify diagnostic efforts. Recent advancements in ocular-based machine learning efforts are promising steps forward. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.