Purpose of review
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of preventable vision loss in the world and its prevalence continues to increase worldwide. One of the ultimate and visually impairing complications of DR is proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and subsequent tractional retinal detachment. Treatment modalities, surgical techniques, and a better understanding of the pathophysiology of DR and PDR continue to change the way we approach the disease. The goal of this review is to provide an update on recent treatment modalities and outcomes of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and its complications including tractional retinal detachment.
Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF), and pars plana vitrectomy are the mainstay of PDR treatment. However, PRP and anti-VEGF are associated with significant treatment burden and multiple subsequent treatments. Early vitrectomy is associated with vision preservation, less treatment burden, and less subsequent treatments than therapy with PRP and anti-VEGF.
Concerning costs, high rates of noncompliance in the diabetic population and significant rates of subsequent treatments with initial PRP and anti-VEGF, early vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy in patients at risk of PDR is a cost-effective long-term stabilizing treatment for diabetics with advanced disease.